【IELTS Writing】在Task1和Task2取得7+分的技巧:tips, sample & practices

根據IETLS主辦機構所整合的2017考生平均分數據,香港在14個亞洲國家及地區中位列第三(6.53分),僅次於馬來西亞及菲律賓。香港考生在4個分卷的表現以寫作能力(5.97分)最為遜色,IELTS區域經理(大中華)溫家輝先生更指香港考生最大問題在於審題不周,作文時往往容易離題。幸運的是,這篇文章為你們歸納了在IETLS Writing取得7分或以上的重點得分技巧和應試心得,最後更附有更多免費的學習資源,讓你能做好充足準備,作文時自然更加得心應手!

IELTS應試技巧全系列:

什麼是IETLS雅思考試?

如果有朋友還沒清楚了解IETLS雅思考試的模式,或是還在為報讀香港IETLS課程的問題而煩惱的話,不妨先到 2019 IELTS課程邊間好?香港5大IETLS雅思課程推薦|懶人包 了解一下,再回來這邊跟我們一起學習寫好IELTS Writing的文章!

目錄:

IELTS Writing又是什麼呢?

IELTS 寫作卷分為兩大部分,考生需要在60分鐘內完成兩篇作文。

  • 第一部分(Task1)為數據題,考生需要就題目提供的圖表對數字的趨勢或轉變加以描述、或作出比較,文章字數不能少於150字。
  • 第二部分(Task2)為申論題,考生需要就題目提供的問題、議題或看法進行討論,包括評論、論證或反駁,文章字數不能少於250字。

由於Task2在字數要求、寫作難度及佔分比重都比Task1要高,所以小編建議考生以20分鐘完成Task1,再以餘下40分鐘處理Task2。

文章一Task 1

Task1的數據題以5種類型的圖表為主,分別是

  • 折線圖line graph
  • 長條圖bar chart
  • 圓形圖pie chart
  • 表格table
  • 流程圖flow chart

數據題主要核考考生學術分析的能力,要求考生以客觀角度分析數據資料並且得出結論。數據題的篇幅不宜過長,因此考生需要言簡意賅地描述圖表的整體趨勢、歸納資料並分析重點數據。要留意的是,學術文章往往都有固定的架構。要先有效規劃寫作步驟,並擁有清晰的文章架構,考生才能在短時間內有條理地整理出圖表摘要。

Writing process 寫作步驟

為了確保考生能清晰審題、文章符合題目要求,小編建議考生按照以下寫作步驟分配時間:

  1. Planning:用3-5分鐘仔細閱讀問題並觀察圖表細節,圈出有用或重要資訊。
  2. Writing: 利用圖表的重要資訊,在12-15分鐘內完成寫作。
  3. Proofreading:利用餘下的2-3分鐘確保文句通順和拼字、文法正確

Basic structure建議的文章架構

  1. Introduction點出文章主題及數據總體趨勢
  2. Body分析圖表數據變化(有需要時須作出比較)
  3. Conclusion綜合論述,作簡單總結

讓我們用以下範例說明如何寫出按照上述文章架構寫出令考官滿意的文章。小編認為以折線圖作為範例最能展示有關描述趨勢和比較數據的技巧:

The graph below shows the number of books read by men and women at Public Library A from 2016 to 2019. Summarize the information by selecting and reporting the main features and make comparisons where relevant.

Introduction引言

  • 先說明圖表的主題

考生應靈活運用同義字和改變詞性的技巧,改寫考卷提供的題目句,而非逐字照抄

題目“The graph below shows the number of books read by men and women at Public Library A from 2016 to 2019”

能夠被改寫成“The given line graph gives information about the difference in the number of library books read by women and men between 2016 and 2019.”

常用詞彙

 

上述(圖表)

the given/ the presented/ the shown/ the provided/ the supplied

描述

illustrate/ demonstrate/ show/ present/ indicate/ provide/ describe/ represent/ compare (比較)

(提供)資料

(give) information about/ the data on/ the number of/ the proportion of/ the process of/ the ratio of/ the trend of/ the differences in/ the comparison of

  • 隨後指出數據的整體趨勢(Overview),讓讀者(即考官)清楚了解圖表的重點。

先問自己一個簡單的問題:整體而言,圖表呈現持續上升、下降、還是不變的趨勢?從圖表可見,男讀者四年內借閱公共圖書館書籍的數量明顯比女讀者借閱量的轉變要大,所以考生能以“男讀者借閱量急劇上升”作為圖表的重點趨勢。考生記得須在兩句內完成具體趨勢描述,當中亦不宜包含任何數字。

A glance at the graph reveals that there was a drastic increase in the number of books read by men over the four-year period.

Body正文

  • 考生須篩選有意義、與圖表重點相關的數字作出說明,不要廢話過多,描述所有數據變化,令文章變得冗長、毫無重點。
  • 若圖表為折線圖,最好能夠指出最高及最低點

 

回到範例,經過仔細觀察後,我們能發現折線圖中的主要資訊為:

  • 男讀者的借閱量在2017至2019年間急劇上升
  • 2016年女讀者和男讀者的借閱量相約,但前者先升後跌,後者則持續上升
  • 2019年男讀者的借閱量比女讀者要多

整理了數據的重點後,考生就可以開始動筆描述和比較數據變化。由於文章要求考生運用多變的詞彙和片語來說明數值的變化,因此考生必須熟習以下形容趨勢的字詞和片語,並學會靈活運用它們。

描述趨勢的

動詞*

名詞

形容詞

助詞

上升

increased/ grew/ climbed/ went up/ rose/ skyrocketed

increase/ growth/ climb/ rise/ upward trend

急遽的sharp / rapid /dramatic

逐漸的gradual 些微的slight  重大的substantial/ significant

 

急遽地sharply/ rapidly/ dramatically / drastically

逐漸地gradually

些微地slightly  

顯著地substantially/ significantly

 

最高點

reached a peak, reached a high

peak/ high

減少

decreased/ dropped/ went down/ declined/reduced

decrease/ drop/ decline/ reduction/ fall/ downward trend

最低點

fell to a low point

trough/ low/ low point

震蕩

fluctuated/ moved up and down

fluctuation

持平

stabilized/ remained steady/ remained stable/remained constant

a plateau

穩定的steady  

穩定地steadily

*因為提供的圖表資料多半是過去的數據,因此動詞都是使用過去式

考生也須掌握形容數字(分數或比例)的片語:

 

Fractions分數

 

Proportions比例

6%

A tiny fraction

2%

A tiny portion

23%

Almost a quarter

5%

An insignificant minority

25%

Exactly a quarter

16%

A small minority

26%

Roughly one quarter.

70%

A large proportion

31%

Nearly one-third

75%

 A significant majority

49%

Around a half

89%

A very large proportion.

50%

Exactly a half

 

 

51%

Just over a half.

 

 

74%

Nearly three quarters

 

 

78%

Approximately three quarter

 

 

 

As can be seen from the graph, there were different trends for men and women. The number of books read by men increased steadily between 2016 and 2017, from about 3000 to 4000. After that, the number rose dramatically to 14000 books in 2014, which was the highest figure in the period.

  • 從圖表可見: as can be seen from the graph/ it could be noticed that/ it is clear from the data that/ it is interesting to note that

 

In contrast to men, women started off reading more books, but their numbers followed a different pattern. Between 2016 and 2017, there was an increase of 4000 from 4000 books to 8000 books, and then a gradual rise to 10000 books in 2013. However, in 2019, their numbers fell back to 8000 again.

  • In contrast to相比下: on the contrary/ unlike…/ different from/ by contrast

Conclusion 總結

  • 綜合上面的論述,就整體趨勢作出簡單的總結。

Overall, there was a strong upward trend in the number of books read by men. Although women read more books than men in 2016, their reading fell to below the level of men in 2019.

  • 總括而言:Overall/ In conclusion, …/ To conclude, …/ In summary, …/ To summarize, …/ To sum up, …/ Generally speaking, …/

重點Tips

  1. 不需在文章加入個人意見!考生只需客觀陳述數據變化
  2. 好好善用題目的提示字眼
  3. 不要反復使用同一詞彙!考生可透過改變詞性、使用同義字等技巧,盡量運用不同詞彙
  4. 若提供多於一個圖表,謹記需要作出比較
  5. 參考網絡上不少針對不同圖表、題型的模板,創造一個屬於自己的「模板庫」,省卻糾結文章格式的時間

額外的Sample paper

正所謂Practice makes perfect,想要考得好成績,當然需要下苦功!所以小編在這裡為大家精挑細選了4個免費的學習資源,務求令大家對每種圖表的寫作方法都瞭如指掌。在這裡提提大家,IELTS Simon和IETLS Mentor除了提供題目外,更附有答案及範文,讓你能透過比較,了解自己文章的不足之處並加以改善。

IELTS官方網站https://www.ieltsessentials.com/prepare/free-practice-tests/academic-writing

IETLS-Exam.net https://www.ielts-exam.net/ielts-writing/

IELTS Simon https://ielts-simon.com/ielts-help-and-english-pr/ielts-writing-task-1/

IELTS Mentor https://www.ielts-mentor.com/writing-sample/academic-writing-task-1/59-resource/2997-recent-ielts-graph-with-answers

文章二Task 2

相比起Task 1的圖表題,Task 2申論題的題型比較容易捉摸,能大致分為三類:

  • 找出問題成因、影響,並提出解決方法

Too many young people in our society are getting sick or even dying because of drug abuse. Why do young people take drugs? How can the problem of drug abuse be solved?

  • 分析事物優劣點 + 個人看法

More and more people are using a lot of online language translation apps. Are there more advantages or more disadvantages of such services?

  • 認同/反對某看法 + 個人看法

The only way to solve the increasing crime rate of young offenders is to teach parents better parenting skills. To what extent do you agree?

Task2的申論題主要考核考生的批判性思考能力,測試考生就不同社會現或議題的分析能力,同時亦評估考生能否在短時間內以文字清晰論證個人觀點。為確保文章完整性,例如正反論證及足夠論據,文章字數不能過短,建議考生能將字數控制在260-280字之間。

就如通識科8分長題目一樣,Task2的申論題也有固定的架構。同時亦如Task1一樣,考生要先有效規劃寫作步驟,並擁有清晰的文章架構,才能在短時間內有條理地論述個人觀點。

Writing process 寫作步驟

  1. 寫大綱:考生可用約5分鐘整理大綱,確保有足夠論據支持論點,也須確保所有分論點均緊扣中心論點,避免論點離題。
  2. 動筆寫作: 考生可依照大網,以25-30分鐘完成文章
  3. Proofreading:利用餘下的3-5分鐘確保文句通順和拼字、文法正確

Basic structure 建議的文章架構

  1. Introduction 簡單介紹議題,並明確表達立場
  2. Body 共兩段,一段一論點論證個人立場
  3. Conclusion 簡單總結上述論點並重申立場

雖然相信大家對這種議論文的格式並不陌生,但為確保大家能掌握得分技巧,讓我們用以下範例說明如何按照上述文章架構寫出令考官滿意的文章吧!題目為:

More and more students are choosing to study at colleges and universities in a foreign country. Do the benefits of studying abroad outweigh the drawbacks?

這題正正是剛才說的第二種題型 (分析事物優劣點 + 個人看法 ),除了列出事物優劣點外,考生必須表明個人立場(你覺得好處還是壞處多?)

Introduction 引言

大家別打瞌睡!以下短片為大家示範了如何能以三句寫出完美的文章引言:

正如影片中的帥哥所說,文章引言須包含以下三部分:

  1. Neutral background sentence 與主題相關的背景資訊
  2. Paraphrase the question 將文章問題改寫
  3. State the purpose 點出文章目的,例如找出問題成因、解決方法,或討論事物正反、優劣,及表明個人立場

 

  1. ” In today’s globalized world, studying abroad is becoming increasingly popular.” 指出海外留學於現今社會十分普遍
  2. ” While international education does have some benefits, these are negligible compared to the deficits.” 以同義詞改寫問題
  3. ” This essay will discuss why the disadvantages of studying abroad in fact outweigh the advantages.” 清楚表達個人立場:認為海外留學是弊大於利

Body 正文

正文主要有兩大段,一正一反,一段完整的段落應包含:

  • 分論點(主旨句):開門見山點出段落重點,須與中心論點互相呼應
  • 論據:用以支持分論點的證據和理由

根據IETLS寫作評分標準所指,段落架構的連貫性為考核重點之一。因此考生必須確保文章段落與句子之間要能彼此互相呼應、論證過程具邏輯,使文章架構嚴謹。同時考生也要透過舉例論證,豐富論據,加強論據說服力。

Admittedly, there are some advantages of studying in a foreign country. Without a doubt, some prestigious foreign institutions have the resources to offer students higher quality courses which open the door to better job opportunities. Secondly, studying abroad will obviously broaden students’ horizons and students can be exposed to different cultures. Lastly, studying overseas facilitates students’ personal growth as they are forced to be more independent and mature.

  • 第一段先說明出國留學的三個好處,分別是高質素教育、開闊眼界和訓練自理能力。

However, disadvantages of attending universities in foreign countries should also be taken into account. The first bottleneck being the pressure of high living cost. Truth be told, in most developed countries, such as the UK or the USA, the living expenses are insanely high for tuitions, food and accommodation. As a result, students, especially those who are in financial difficulties, might have to take a part-time job to cover their expenses, which eventually affect their school performance adversely. The second concern is that students might experience culture shock and language barriers. Being discouraged from communicating and interacting with other people, students are more prone to suffer from isolation and loneliness. Finally, homesickness and the lack of parental care and friends sharing can also create negative influences on students’ mental wellbeing, which might ultimately lead to depression. 

  • 因為文章立場為「海外留學是弊大於利」,因此在第二段會用較長篇幅說明出國留學的壞處,每個觀點都有相較詳細的論證過程。三個壞處分別為經濟壓力大、文化差異和鄉愁,每項都有適當地延伸,增強論據的說服力。

重點Tips

  • 當要說明多於一個觀點,考生能運用列舉方式,使文章結構更清楚易明:

第一點

第二點

第三點

第四點

Firstly,

Secondly,

Thirdly,

Lastly,

To begin with,

Then,

Furthermore,

Finally,

To start with,

Next,

In addition,

Finally,

Fist and foremost,

Besides,

Last but not least,

 

Most important of all,

Moreover,

Finally,

 

 

  • 靈活運用同義詞!靈活運用同義詞!靈活運用同義詞! 因為太重要了,所以要說三遍。請大家要習慣使用同義詞、或改變詞性去避免一直重複使用相同詞彙。例如題目的重點字眼為studying abroad(出國留學),考生能以studying overseas, study in a foreign country或international education 等詞彙取代題目提供的單字,豐富文章。

 

  • 另外,題目提供的優點(benefits)和缺點(drawbacks), 大家可以用以下的生字代替:

好處

壞處

Advantage

Disadvantage

Benefit

Drawback

Upside

Downside

Pro

Con

Plus

Minus

Merit

Demerit

 

  • 除了靈活運用不同單字外,考生亦要習慣適當地使用連接詞,使文句通暢,大大增加文章的可讀性:

And 和

In addition to

Apart from

Moreover,

As well as

Besides,

But 但是

However,

Nevertheless,

Nonetheless,

yet

 

So 所以

As a result,

Thus

Then

Therefore

Hence

Actually

其實

In fact,

To be honest,

Indeed,

As a matter

of fact,

In reality,

 

Although

雖然

In spite of

Despite

Even though

though

 

For example, 例如

For instance,

Such as

 

 

 

To conclude, 總結而言

To sum up,

In summary,

 

 

 

 

Obviously 顯而易見

Apparently 顯而易見

Undoubtedly 毋容置疑

Surprisingly 令人意外

 

 

 

Conclusion 總結

“In conclusion, there are definitely some upsides of studying abroad, but there obviously are more downsides, some of which might even lead to severe consequences. Therefore, I believe that international education will be detrimental to students.”

  • 結語句非常簡單,考生只需綜合上述論點,再次強調自己的論點與立場便可以了。
  • 值得留意的是,考生必須確保結語句與段落前後一致,並與中心論點互相呼應。

實戰:Past essay topics 歷屆考試題目

小編為大家精心挑選了一些歷屆考試題目(2019年7至9月),讓你們能嘗試運用上述應試技巧及竅門寫出一篇完整的文章。以下的題目已涵蓋各類題型,希望考生能夠加以練習,完美掌握各類題型的答題技巧。這樣的話,不論考試出什麼題目,對你們來說也是毫無難度!

  1. Nowadays people make new friends through social networks and internet chat groups. Some people think this is good. Others think that face-to-face interaction is essential. Discuss both views and give your opinion.
  2. Food travels thousands of miles from the local farmer to consumers. Some people believe we should buy food from the local farmer to protect the environment and support local businesses. Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?
  3. Many employers are employing people with good social skills as well as good qualifications. Do you agree or disagree that good social skills are as important as good qualifications to succeed in a job?
  4. The internet and television are giving more opportunities for the average person to become famous. Is it a positive or negative development?
  5. These days many of us prefer to throw damaged things away, whereas in the past people used to repair damaged items and keep them for a long time. Explain why you think this change has happened. What are the effects of this change in attitude?
  6. In the past, museums stored information about culture and history. However, nowadays such information can be easily found through the Internet, therefore there is no need for museums. Do you agree or disagree with this view?

 

如果已經做完了以上的題目,不妨可以到IELTS Podcast去找更多Task2的考試題目。網站除了提供Task2 寫作卷的9分範例供考生參考外,更附有更多應試的實用tips,保證考生順利避開所有「常犯錯誤」!

最後祝各位考生考試順利、取得令自己滿意的成績!大家加油!

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